Tuesday, February 28, 2017

bar at home design

hi jim at the furniture workshop. today i'dlike to give you a quick preview of the next woodworking income project - the three panelbar. now this is the third project in my woodworking income series. and now that folks are spendingmore time indoors, this can be good project to build for customers. now like the otherincome projects, it goes together fairly quickly and can offer you a decent hourly rate afteryour expenses. so, looking at the bar construction. the frame is solid pine stock. the skin ishalf-inch birch plywood, oriented vertically. and i created the decorative panels using1 by 4 pine and some cap molding. now the top is also pine with a half-inch plywoodbase and a laminated pine rail. to help the build go quickly, i'm using pocket hole jointsto assemble the frame. the skin is secured

with liquid nails, a few wood screws and brads- and that's all hidden under the panel frames. i've installed the plywood with a verticalgrain, so i can have the option of finishing the bar with paint or stain. now this prototypehas two shelves but we could probably squeeze another shelf into the final design to makethings a little more convenient for the bartender. so, that's the basic design for my home bar.i'm hoping to have the final project done in the next week or so. and i'll have woodworkingplans available a couple weeks after that. now if you'd like to see the full build video,subscribe to our youtube channel right here and you'll get an update as soon as the video is ready.and i'll also put together videos on pricing, costs and some marketing tactics to help reachnew customers. in the meantime, if you'd like

to check out our other income projects, visitour website at homegrownfurniture.com. and thanks for watching today.

Monday, February 27, 2017

bangladesh home design

- don't forget you only got 'til february26 to enter the the win your northstar lite go to theslantedlens.com. enter thewin for your northstar lite. - hi this is jay p morgan. i'm at alocation with caleb and lars, and we're going to show you how to turn a bedroominto a home studio. we're going to show you how to create a very simple backdropholder. you could put it on the wall. that takes a very little space. we'll show youhow to control the window lights that comes through the windows and last of allsome lighting. things you could make at home. they're going to show you how you'regoing to set up your lights for a two lights video interview and we'll finishwith that. let's get started, see what we

can do. just a couple of things to thinkabout before you start your studio interview is your extra bedroom. one isthe color of the walls. if you got walls like this, which are great, they'reneutral that's not gonna bounce any color back into your image that perfect. if yougot room that has very heavy color, greens or reds, those kinds of things. they'regonna bounce right into your shot. they're gonna kill your color balance. sothe first thing i do, i get paint roller, i roll some paint on all over the walls.you got neutral room, neutral color. secondly, i'm gonna put up a tarp on thefloor, just to protect hardware floor. laid on the floor, it's all gonna bebrown, and that'ts gonna give us a nice

neutral color. it's not gonna bounce anyblue back in the shadow of green so those are our first principle in getting ourhome studio started. in my hand, i have a very simple backdrop holder way to hangyour backdrop on the wall. well this is a half inched galvanized pipe. you've got aplate, which you're gonna screw it onto the wall. we simply screw in a threeinched pipe and now screw in an elbow, and now a six inch return or we can make thislonger. that's a very simple one half of our backdrop holder, so you could put thisagainst the wall like that and you could put your seamless on it. put on theceiling. put you seamless on it it gets everything out of the way. you don't haveto have stands on the floor that create a

big problem on the background. - this makes this very easy. you alsocould put on here a one inch conduit. that one inch piece of conduit is very rigid soas much as heavier or stronger that pvc or rubbery items items but this gonna giveyou a great hold of your backdrop on as this hangs on the ceiling. nowunfortunately because we're in someone else's apartment here we can't shoot thisinto the ceiling but if i was doing this in my house, i would shoot this onto theceiling or onto the wall. once you got your two backdrop holder, your going toget the right distance from each other. obviously, you kind of understand thisprinciple. we have our one inch conduit,

just few down on your's there. on my end,i'll bring this out , towards it's gonna go on there. i can slide that back far andthen we're gonna put an a clamp on each side to keep this from falling on. again,we would have this up onto the ceiling against the wall so it's a great way toget your backdrop up and now we have c stand on on the floor. it's gonna eat upall the space on the floor of the room. great for tight areas. now, next thingthat we're gonna do is put our backdrop up. this is a cheap backdrop that i got upfrom amazon. it's a white backdrop and is like 30 bucks. it's got a pocket in oneend. there's our pocket. it's been sawed on the one side and it drop itself, ithink it's 20 feet . so it's gonna give us

a long area. i can run that pocket onhere, and that's great because it hangs very nicely. one of two things, either sawa new pocket on the other end but then you got a sawed up pocket just just enoughdistance to fill the distance right before. so i'll do the opposite i'm gonnaput the pocket on the floor with another pipe in it. i'm gonna drape the drop overthis and then a clamped into this bar in that way i could use the pocket on thebottom with the pipe in it that create weights so it take out all the wrinkles onthe backdrop. then if i wanted to, i could flip around and hang a pocket here and icould sweep without as seamless. we used the whole piece. now we got a lot ofwrinkles on this backdrop. it's little

hard for that to be really smooth, we mayhave to steam it out a little bit. for one thing you can do if your just going to usethis as backdrop. you're not gonna sweep it, just take thisa little pole, and cail gonna grab it for me and we're gonna put this, we're gonnarole our backdrop up on the pipe. so this will put your wrinkles start to go away.one of the first thing you need to get for your studio is a stool. you can get thisat walmart, kmart target any of those places. they use to have a three footstool, get wood one, a metal one what ever you like but you've got to have somethingto sit down . now you can already take a picture with our naturalized studio. solet's put in up a fabric backdrop. the

problem with fabric backdrops is theywrinkle. you got to try to keep it straight but their long unless you cancurl them out. their very nice in that way, but a simple solution, you got asavage or serve it like a seamless. a nine-foot wide seamless or a 12-foot wide.12-foot is very expensive. a nine-foot wide seamless is perfect. just put itthere, drop it down, build a backdrop behind them or you can roll them down onthe floor to undo full length. so let's put up a seamless just to see how thatworks on backdrop set up. so you can see up there, i put the cast back on so youcan see that's the way that will be hanging up back there. all you could seeis that pipe on the ceiling. so those are

our seamless. you'd have to set yourbackdrop holder on the ceiling distance to make that cardboard work. just easier tohave the seamless on this pole, in that way you can slide it out backdrop theirgonna last a lot longer. they can get dirty so you have to wash them at times.but the disadvantage is they're harder to keep them wrinkle free, they're harder toroll up an they're barely used. where the seamless rolls out very easily, goes upvery easily but things like this start to happen to them. they don't last forever.but you do have a synthetic call out the paper more paper out and you'll get a newone. this is all thesame as seamless there. this time let's have a couple ofshots and let's see. we got a window light

from the right hand side of the frame butnow what we're gonna do is were gonna control that light from the window so wecan either have it as part of our shot or we can get rid of it completely.so we're gonna put some eclipse blackout curtains which you can get from amazon.they're really really quite inexpensive, 20 or 30 dollars. this you can put up onyour window. it will give us the ability to either use this. open up and use thisor close it off and use it to completely controlled light in this room in thisroom. if i were doing this, i didn't have to set this up on the side, i would putthis on another bar and put this bar up on that wall. you can hold them up or you canput them on the curtain. rods are already

there. just somewhere to put this blackoutcurtain on there . usually, i want them to exceed the frame of the window cause ifyou just get it on the frame of the window lights still beams through. so' i willexceed the frame and very close and it would blacken out. we blacked out thewindow and that't why you you can't see me. where am i? that's pretty effective.those blackouts curtains called eclipse are just heavy and take all the light out.another thing is that we added light here on the camera left side it's not gonnabounce out into our white wall over here. so it's going to give us the ability toadd more dramatic, little more creative lighting. this room, ceilings and all ,walls are closed when you put one light

up, it's bouncing everywhere. so at least,it takes us one wall out f the way. if you put your light on the camera left side, imean most of your light will be out of that camera left wall, it's going to behidden in this black curtain and it's going to give us a nice shot of a personwithout a lot of fill. now you can control the fill, you can bring it up or downwhatever you wanna do. so now, we need to have lights. we're gonna show you somesimple things you can build and you know those are interesting and kind ofbeginning place but they're gonna show you using just same really decent lights.we'll give you a good light on you person. now we're going to talk about lighting,we're gonna talk about home made lighting.

you know, there are several things you cando. everyone starts up with this little baby thing right here. they go to homedepot. they buy all this things at and they plug it in, put the diffusion on thetrunk. back this on to an inexpensive stand. - you got a light. it's a simple very easyto start. this things you can put up a 100 watt bulb into them. actually have a300-watt at home depot. i don't think they're ready for that. but they do have a300 watt bulb at least give you an starting place for light. the hard thingabout this is there reflectors are very hard and it's very focused and it's justseems like everywhere. so not my

favorite solution but it's not terriblesolution. for eight bucks, it's not horrible. so now let's go on to making asoftbox. a softbox is simply a four sided container that keeps your light aroundyour light and then nice soft diffusion at the front. so you can put your light wellcontrolled. it gets light away from the light bulb the diffusion material, andlets the light bounce inside the soft box so you get a softer light as it comes out.it does a directional quality about it cause you are looking straight at thelight you can feel the diffusion so you can diffuse accross the fuse and focusedlight source at the same time. so lets talk about how to make a soft box. i havethree different options, i have a plastic

detergent container here, we get from aplant in here in california. just a normal everyday laundry detergent. this is alittle heavy , but in my work i have a cooler which is styrofoam. what isinteresting about styrofoam is that styrofoam set is an incredible diffuser asfar as bouncing light. bouncing light out of this piece of foam they call it.. thisset has some quality. this is going to be soft and a light nice coming out from hiscooler and it comes with a reflector. i've got a bakers box which again is a softbox with a detachable reflector. so let's put up these together and just see howsuccessful they are. let's start with an inch a little bit. it's very very simple ,gonna stick this, gonna pull at back of my

plastic container. drill a hole now, we have a hole attached to our lightbox. i'm gonna start to this light and gail is gonna hand me the yellow handledthin snips out of the tool bag. so what i'm gonna do is i'm gonna take and cutthis little tin part of in front of here. like this. the reason why i'm doing thisis because i want this little ring and it's going to and around my container formy soft box so we're gonna disregard this. now i got a ring here, i'm gonna cut myhand. so this is gonna go through this opening. i'm gonna move this clamp herefrom the front to the back and i know

that's exactly that way it meant to be isused, but quite frankly, as a soft box holder, it's not exactly what it meant tobe either. so we're tighten up in there , so now this can go through the hole likethis. perfect, and this will twist on the front. so hold it in place, with that 300watts light bulb in there. i'm gonna take a diffusion paper on there and then we usean a clamp to help hold a little bucket, gonna hold on to stand, because that's notvery tight at the back. it doesn't work very well. so you could a clamp on there.you got a nice little light coming through the light and also gives us a little glowaround which is something we didn't really anticipated but kind of a cool thing solet's put a piece of diffusion on the

front so there you have it. a 300 wattslight bulb in a laundry detergent basket and quality light look on my face. it hasa little bit of an over all fill on the room because the bucket itself is glowing.so you got the key light on the face. a little bit of glow in the room which isinteresting look. you make that for about 9 dollars and 50 cents. 15 dollars withthe label and we got laundry detergent so you get clean clothes. - option number two, is the start fromcooler. i think this has a lot of promise and we're going to draw a hole at thebottom of the cooler. now for our styrofoam cooler softbox, we're going totake again a metal container. put that in

there. we're gonna cut this open again.all right and i'm gonna slide down at the front here, attach right under the frontjust like what we did before. now this is much lighter than our plastic tub becausethe cooler was just so so light. look inside here, we're gonna put our 300 wattlight bulb in there. now, another option that we have here, i bought this on theinternet, bought everything on the internet and there's an adapter we couldtwist this in and this will give us the ability to use this for regular householdlight bulbs and that would be put on this like that which really makes it nice,we're going to use regular household light bulbs. we could use four, four hundredwatts. right now, we could just use a

single and put 300 watts so we couldcompare of what this one looks like. put it on to our stand. this seems to be alittle bit of a glow around this. well, not as much as the last one. so lit by thestarlite cooler softbox. pretty light. it doesn't bounce as much as the other onedid. the back of the cooler is more secured. also the front diffuser is alittle further away from the bulb which gives us a little more directional light.for 300 watt light bulb, you buy from home depot for 499, this is a pretty decentsetup. okay, now we're going to make a soft box out of a baker's box. the reasonwe've chosen baker's box is because it's white. so the first thing that we're gonnado, separate on that edge right there turn

it over and reattach it, so it's going tobe inside out. so now as we turn our stuff in, we'llseparate the box here like that, and now we'll reverse our box to a white interior.the problem that we have is that it flips on the other side so we're gonna tape thatdown. so again, we got the baner's box, we'll take and we will do a hole on thebox . i'm gonna cut a little off like this. okay this is a little easy. i'm notgonna have to move that bracket back at which is a better place for bracket to me,because the cardboard is so much thinner. print softbox assembly instruction is onthe inside. so we could use that for later so we're gonna attach our soft box to thestand and clamped on the back. we got to

tape and use and use an a clamp forsecurity. and now we're going to tape long. actually, we're going to put a 300watt light bulb. on the front and there is our bakers box . it's a very soft lightactually and i think it's because it doesn't bounce around as much as it did inthe styrofoam and the plastic was harder in the surface and not the light out ofthe front of the box a little harder. this seems very soft , it's actually not a badlight at all. so let's wrap this up. we've got a soft box made up of a bakers box isvery soft. we got a box as soft made up of soft detergent box and that was kind alittle more illuminate but still very soft. our start from cool is a littleharder and a little brighter almost

brighter , but in the end when you look atall the different lights the colors off it's kind of are all over the place. thisis fun. we're gonna light our transits. whatever our transits would be justbecause its a fun thing to do. but in the end, if i'm gonna work and take this onsets somewhere the one they're not gonna transport because they'll gonna fall apartin two. i can't walk into a ceo's office with a detergent soft box.it just makes you look like you aren't really a working professional videographerphotographer so you need an entry level kind of trans light and even if you do nowhome studio. get a good set of entry level transit lights you could set up. biggerlighting just right and really become

workable situation. you can use for yearsand years and years . great one is starlite by photoflex. you get a great setup. you put those, you could use on location. a very durable great soft boxthat are really on color white and easy to transport and still a way to go but anywaythe box is made up of a detergent box and you know a bakers box are fun. you got aset of lights up so it's a easy to do and we'll get to show how to set our lightsup. we're gonna wrap up what we've done today we talked about creating a studio inyour home, a small room you're going to make into a studio a. the principles iwant you to understand from this are- 1. make sure the walls are of neutral color ,2. you put up black out curtains to cover

your window which kills some of the bouncein your room. you can really get a little more dramatic light but give's you theoption of opening all those curtains so you can use window light if you wanna dothat as a light source really gives you different options there. two, that you cancreate a drop holder for your ceiling . you get out of the way. you don't have tohave expensive stands, you don't have the floor spaces stands that takes up. get allthose stands. rid all those stands. put those drops from the wall on the ceiling.very easy backdrop container to make . you know making things. i'm not a huge fan ofmaking things, i'm just not. but when they work and that backdrop holder really doeswork then it's worth it. there's no other

else out there. i mean for other things,you get little pleasure rolling up there's a lot of steps out there. but that one ischeap and easy and it really works so it's worthwhile. the soft boxes were great.they have great light. they're fun but we did our transfer and they were starting tofall apart a little bit. they disintegrate a little bit. i expect them to burst themto flame at any moment. so but anyway, it was an interesting experience but again ifyou want to get into decent light, you're gonna get something like the starlite. itgives you a decent light you can use to travel with. it really becomes aprofessional piece of equipment. - don't forget you only got 'til february26 to win your north star lite go to .

slanterdens. com. enter the win for yournorth star light. i hope you enjoyed our lesson on creating a studio out of yourspare bedroom. kick your dog out of he spare room or your husband, or your wifeor whoever is in that spare room and make yourself a home studio cause it's a greatthing to have. we wanna welcome our new sponsors squarespace, they are great webplatform, great for hosting, for galleries, for videos. check it out. theyhave excellent templates. they're new sponsors of ours. we're gonna talk about alittle more about web designing in the future. so check out squarespace. it's agreat platform. if you like us on facebook, give kisses for valentines day.he's not kissing me.

Friday, February 24, 2017

balinese home design

when i was nine years old, my mom asked me what i would wantmy house to look like, and i drew this fairy mushroom. and then she actually built it. (laughter) i don't think i realizedthis was so unusual at the time, and maybe i still haven't, because i'm still designing houses. this is a six-story bespoke homeon the island of bali.

it's built almost entirely from bamboo. the living room overlooks the valleyfrom the fourth floor. you enter the house by a bridge. it can get hot in the tropics, so we make big curving roofsto catch the breezes. but some rooms have tall windowsto keep the air conditioning in and the bugs out. this room we left open. we made an air-conditioned, tented bed.

and one client wanted a tv roomin the corner of her living room. boxing off an area with tall wallsjust didn't feel right, so instead, we made this giant woven pod. now, we do have all the necessaryluxuries, like bathrooms. this one is a basketin the corner of the living room, and i've got tell you, some peopleactually hesitate to use it. we have not quite figured outour acoustic insulation. so there are lots of thingsthat we're still working on, but one thing i have learned

is that bamboo will treat you wellif you use it right. it's actually a wild grass. it grows on otherwise unproductive land -- deep ravines, mountainsides. it lives off of rainwater,spring water, sunlight, and of the 1,450 species of bamboothat grow across the world, we use just seven of them. that's my dad. he's the one who got mebuilding with bamboo,

and he is standing in a clump of dendrocalamus asper nigerthat he planted just seven years ago. each year, it sends upa new generation of shoots. that shoot, we watched it grow a meterin three days just last week, so we're talking about sustainabletimber in three years. now, we harvest from hundredsof family-owned clumps. betung, as we call it, it's really long, up to 18 meters of usable length. try getting that truck down the mountain.

and it's strong: it hasthe tensile strength of steel, the compressive strength of concrete. slam four tons straight down on a pole, and it can take it. because it's hollow, it's lightweight, light enough to be liftedby just a few men, or, apparently, one woman. (laughter) (applause) and when my fatherbuilt green school in bali,

he chose bamboo for allof the buildings on campus, because he saw it as a promise. it's a promise to the kids. it's one sustainable materialthat they will not run out of. and when i first saw these structuresunder construction about six years ago, i just thought, this makes perfect sense. it is growing all around us. it's strong. it's elegant. it's earthquake-resistant.

why hasn't this happened sooner,and what can we do with it next? so along with some ofthe original builders of green school, i founded ibuku. ibu means "mother," and ku means "mine,"so it represents my mother earth, and at ibuku, we are a teamof artisans, architects and designers, and what we're doing togetheris creating a new way of building. over the past five years together, we have built over 50 unique structures,most of them in bali. nine of them are at green village --

you've just seen insidesome of these homes -- and we fill them with bespoke furniture, we surround them with veggie gardens, we would love to invite you allto come visit someday. and while you're there,you can also see green school -- we keep buildingclassrooms there each year -- as well as an updatedfairy mushroom house. we're also working ona little house for export. this is a traditional sumbanese homethat we replicated,

right down to the details and textiles. a restaurantwith an open-air kitchen. it looks a lot like a kitchen, right? and a bridge that spans22 meters across a river. now, what we're doing,it's not entirely new. from little huts to elaborate bridgeslike this one in java, bamboo has been in use acrossthe tropical regions of the world for literally tens of thousands of years. there are islands and even continentsthat were first reached by bamboo rafts.

but until recently, it was almost impossible to reliablyprotect bamboo from insects, and so, just about everythingthat was ever built out of bamboo is gone. unprotected bamboo weathers. untreated bamboo gets eaten to dust. and so that's why most people,especially in asia, think that you couldn't be poor enoughor rural enough to actually want to live in a bamboo house. and so we thought,

what will it take to change their minds, to convince peoplethat bamboo is worth building with, much less worth aspiring to? first, we needed safe treatment solutions. borax is a natural salt. it turns bamboo intoa viable building material. treat it properly, design it carefully, and a bamboo structurecan last a lifetime. second, build somethingextraordinary out of it.

inspire people. fortunately, balinese culture fosters craftsmanship. it values the artisan. so combine thosewith the adventurous outliers from new generationsof locally trained architects and designers and engineers, and always remember that you are designing for curving, tapering, hollow poles.

no two poles alike, no straight lines, no two-by-fours here. the tried-and-true, well-crafted formulasand vocabulary of architecture do not apply here. we have had to invent our own rules. we ask the bamboo what it's good at,what it wants to become, and what it says is: respect it,design for its strengths, protect it from water,and to make the most of its curves. so we design in real 3d,

making scale structural models out of the same materialthat we'll later use to build the house. and bamboo model-making, it's an art, as well as some hardcore engineering. so that's the blueprint of the house. and we bring it to site, and with tiny rulers,we measure each pole, and consider each curve, and we choosea piece of bamboo from the pile to replicate that house on site.

when it comes down to the details,we consider everything. why are doors so often rectangular? why not round? how could you make a door better? well, its hinges battle with gravity, and gravity will always win in the end, so why not have it pivot on the center where it can stay balanced? and while you're at it,why not doors shaped like teardrops?

to reap the selective benefitsand work within the constraints of this material, we have really had to push ourselves, and within that constraint,we have found space for something new. it's a challenge: howdo you make a ceiling if you don't have anyflat boards to work with? let me tell you, sometimes i dreamof sheet rock and plywood. but if what you've gotis skilled craftsmen and itsy bitsy little splits,

weave that ceiling together, stretch a canvas over it, lacquer it. how do you design durablekitchen countertops that do justice to this curvingstructure you've just built? slice up a boulder like a loaf of bread, hand-carve each to fit the other, leave the crusts on, and what we're doing,it is almost entirely handmade. the structural connectionsof our buildings

are reinforced by steel joints, but we usea lot of hand-whittled bamboo pins. there are thousands of pins in each floor. this floor is made of glossyand durable bamboo skin. you can feel the texture under bare feet. and the floor that you walk on, can it affect the way that you walk? can it change the footprintthat you'll ultimately leave on the world? i remember being nine years old and feeling wonder,

and possibility, and a little bit of idealism. and we've got a really long way to go, there's a lot left to learn, but one thing i know is thatwith creativity and commitment, you can create beauty and comfort and safety and even luxury out of a material that will grow back. thank you.


Thursday, February 23, 2017

balinese design homes

i grew up in a very small village in canada, and i'm an undiagnosed dyslexic. i had a really hard time in school. in fact, my mother told me eventually that i was the little kid in the village who cried all the way to school. i ran away.

i left when i was 25 years old to go to bali, and there i met my incredible wife, cynthia, and together, over 20 years, we built an amazing jewelry business. it was a fairy tale, and then we retired. then she took me to see a film that i really didn't want to see. it ruined my life -- (laughter)

"the inconvenient truth" and mr. gore. i have four kids, and even if part of what he says is true, they're not going to have the life that i had. and i decided at that moment that i would spend the rest of my life doing whatever i could to improve their possibilities. so here's the world,

and here we are in bali. it's a tiny, little island -- 60 miles by 90 miles. it has an intact hindu culture. cynthia and i were there. we had had a wonderful life there, and we decided to do something unusual. we decided to give back locally.

and here it is: it's called the green school. i know it doesn't look like a school, but it is something we decided to do, and it is extremely, extremely green. the classrooms have no walls. the teacher is writing on a bamboo blackboard. the desks are not square. at green school, the children are smiling --

an unusual thing for school, especially for me. and we practice holism. and for me it's just the idea that, if this little girl graduates as a whole person, chances are she'll demand a whole world -- a whole world -- to live on.

our children spend 181 days going to school in a box. the people that built my school also built the prison and the insane asylum out of the same materials. so if this gentleman had had a holistic education, would he be sitting there? would he have had more possibilities in his life?

the classrooms have natural light. they're beautiful. they're bamboo. the breeze passes through them. and when the natural breeze isn't enough, the kids deploy bubbles, but not the kind of bubbles you know. these bubbles are made from natural cotton and rubber from the rubber tree. so we basically turned the box

into a bubble. and these kids know that painless climate control may not be part of their future. we pay the bill at the end of the month, but the people that are really going to pay the bill are our grandchildren. we have to teach the kids

that the world is not indestructible. these kids did a little graffiti on their desks, and then they signed up for two extra courses. the first one was called sanding and the second one was called re-waxing. but since that happened, they own those desks. they know they can control their world. we're on the grid. we're not proud of it.

but an amazing alternative energy company in paris is taking us off the grid with solar. and this thing is the second vortex to be built in the world, in a two-and-a-half meter drop on a river. when the turbine drops in, it will produce 8,000 watts of electricity, day and night. and you know what these are.

there's nowhere to flush. and as long as we're taking our waste and mixing it with a huge amount of water -- you're all really smart, just do the math. how many people times how much water. there isn't enough water. these are compost toilets, and nobody at the school wanted to know about them, especially the principal.

and they work. people use them. people are okay. it's something you should think about doing. not many things didn't work. the beautiful canvas and rubber skylights got eaten by the sun in six months. we had to replace them with recyclable plastic. the teachers dragged giant pvc whiteboards into the classrooms. so we had some good ideas:

we took old automobile windshields, put paper behind them and created the first alternative to the whiteboard. green school sits in south-central bali, and it's on 20 acres of rolling garden. there's an amazing river traveling through it, and you can see there how we manage to get across the river.

i met a father the other day; he looked a little crazed. i said, "welcome to green school." he said, "i've been on an airplane for 24 hours." i asked him, "why?" he said, "i had a dream once about a green school, and i saw a picture of this green school, i got on an airplane. in august i'm bringing my sons." this was a great thing.

but more than that, people are building green houses around green school, so their kids can walk to school on the paths. and people are bringing their green industries, hopefully their green restaurants, to the green school. it's becoming a community. it's becoming a green model. we had to look at everything.

no petrochemicals in the pavement. no pavement. these are volcanic stones laid by hand. there are no sidewalks. the sidewalks are gravel. they flood when it rains, but they're green. this is the school buffalo. he's planning to eat that fence for dinner. all the fences at green school are green.

and when the kindergarten kids recently moved their gate, they found out the fence was made out of tapioca. they took the tapioca roots up to the kitchen, sliced them thinly and made delicious chips. landscaping. we manage to keep the garden that was there running right up to the edge of each of the classrooms. we dropped them gently in.

we made space for these guys who are bali's last black pigs. and the school cow is trying to figure out how to replace the lawnmower on the playing field. these young ladies are living in a rice culture, but they know something that few people know in a rice culture.

they know how to plant organic rice, they know how to look after it, they know how to harvest and they know how to cook it. they're part of the rice cycle and these skills will be valuable for them in their future. this young man is picking organic vegetables. we feed 400 people lunch every day and it's not a normal lunch. there's no gas.

local balinese women cook the food on sawdust burners using secrets that only their grandmothers know. the food is incredible. green school is a place of pioneers, local and global. and it's a kind of microcosm of the globalized world. the kids are from 25 countries.

when i see them together, i know that they're working out how to live in the future. green school is going into its third year with 160 children. it's a school where you do learn reading -- one of my favorites -- writing -- i was bad at it -- arithmetic.

but you also learn other things. you learn bamboo building. you practice ancient balinese arts. this is called mud wrestling in the rice fields. the kids love it. the mothers aren't quite convinced. we've done a lot of outrageous things in our lives, and we said, okay, local, what does "local" mean?

local means that 20 percent of the population of the school has to be balinese, and this was a really big commitment. and we were right. and people are coming forward from all over the world to support the balinese scholarship fund, because these kids will be bali's next green leaders.

the teachers are as diverse as the student body, and the amazing thing is that volunteers are popping up. a man came from java with a new kind of organic agriculture. a woman came from africa with music. and together these volunteers and the teachers are deeply committed

to creating a new generation of global, green leaders. the green school effect -- we don't know what it is. we need someone to come and study it. but what's happening, our learning-different kids -- dyslexic -- we've renamed them prolexic -- are doing well in these beautiful, beautiful classrooms.

and all the kids are thriving. and how did we do all this? on giant grass. it's bamboo. it comes out of the ground like a train. it grows as high as a coconut tree in two months and three years later it can be harvested to build buildings like this. it's as strong and dense as teak

and it will hold up any roof. when the architects came, they brought us these things, and you've probably seen things like this. the yellow box was called the administration complex. we squashed it, we rethought it, but mainly we renamed it "the heart of school," and that changed everything forever. it's a double helix.

it has administrators in it and many, many other things. and the problem of building it -- when the balinese workers saw long reams of plans, they looked at them and said, "what's this?" so we built big models. we had them engineered by the engineers. and balinese carpenters like this

measured them with their bamboo rulers, selected the bamboo and built the buildings using age-old techniques, mostly by hand. it was chaos. and the balinese carpenters want to be as modern as we do, so they use metal scaffolding to build the bamboo building and when the scaffolding came down,

we realized that we had a cathedral, a cathedral to green, and a cathedral to green education. the heart of school has seven kilometers of bamboo in it. from the time the foundations were finished, in three months it had roofs and floors. it may not be the biggest bamboo building in the world, but many people believe

that it's the most beautiful. is this doable in your community? we believe it is. green school is a model we built for the world. it's a model we built for bali. and you just have to follow these simple, simple rules: be local, let the environment lead and think about

how your grandchildren might build. so, mr. gore, thank you. you ruined my life, but you gave me an incredible future. and if you're interested in being involved in finishing green school and building the next 50 around the world, please come and see us. thank you.


Wednesday, February 22, 2017

bali home designs

hardwood floor plans. without perimeter walls, babaji is a simple 4 sided hardwood floor plans but looking upwards to the ceiling we do see a geometrical dance. this diverse grouping of forms creates a state of solid centered ambiance. with a winding 10 sided facing (not quite round), the interior space flows into a delicately placed dividing wall. behind this partition, there is plenty of room for kitchen, bathroom and closet units to be gracefully tucked away. living area – 420 ft2 (39 m2) house height – 16 ft (5 m)

Tuesday, February 21, 2017

bali home design

welcome to our little eco, hut this is called the new earth amethyst dome i want to give you guys the couple's house course you can really experience what we have been? experiencing the last few days and see how yeah how there's other ways to travel in other ways for when you stay in places in foreign countries to have those places give back and be a part of weaning cycle of life i thought we start with packed in here. this is the path from the road and we take pure backyard which is the rice field over here? very very beautiful and down here. we have a pass to our neighbors that that dome number two. we have our other neighbors on this side here who were featured in our last video. i believe we had them he was showing us his musical talent

this is our front yard you know you can play soccer in it or lawn darts or whatever you might want to say enough is enough room for soccer alright, and so here. we have our outdoor bathroom facility. there's a beautiful little outdoor bathroom sink and mirror how the brain actually that goes right into the rice field and the same thing [goes] for our? amazing adorable outdoor shower and all the water just goes back into the earth here up these stairs is the choice cause everything you do in there is a part of the recycling program media business here and i was here this morning and saw some perverse in our front area

catching of you, so lucky we have this afternoon door juliana, why don't you take everybody inside and let's see what's going on in there, so we have our threads are so welcome to your cute little home we're actually taking off after this so we have [all] our stuff or two passed out but this is our seating area near and then this is what our laden's our work has been going on for low beautiful right here in this table. this is my favorite part the land and you guys want to see the coolest thing about this place is that all the lights at night are controlled by the system?

so you literally do the on and off bedside lamps, and it controls too much everywhere around the house and it's actually enough enough lighting at night. which is pretty awesome. so [i'll] take you guys upstairs this is their bed this guy right here is very important to sit there technically outside there isn't a windows or doors so at night you want to protect yourself from all the mosquitoes and weird bugs that live in the rice field and right here couch along down area when you can just complete book be on a computer or have it now no, but it's wonderful here. it's really peaceful that's pretty much it. that's a cute little dome and we have skylights. it gives me beautiful stars on a clear night

so that is under the tune of our amethyst dome and cause a beautiful home we'll put the air b&b link in the description if you guys want to check it out and if you're coming to a boot we much recommend something a little bit of side of the city like this anyways we hope you guys enjoyed this video if you'd like to see more of our adventures subscribe to our youtube channel give us a thumbs up or comments below if you have any questions about food or other places being up alright guys see you later nice you

Monday, February 20, 2017

bali design homes

rain forest retreat design – bali floor plans bali floor plans: one of the largest structures in the teak bali product line, with a demonstrative lanai and a large common area, the rain forest retreat states family/community. our most popular model utilizes larger spans to achieve a spacious ‘hang out’ area in this bali floor plan. making use of less walls/partitions gives more feeling of interior space successfully creating an expansive feeling. combined with the spacious ceiling, the rain forest retreat truly has an unrestricted, vast mood. a grand atmosphere for those who wish to live in a more unobstructed, free environment.

and as is possible with all teak bali models, the rain forest retreat can be altered to our clients tastes in this case with the possibility of adding in a 3rd bedroom. interior living area – 2,368 ft2 (220 m2) front lanai area – 420 ft2 (39 m2) house height – 26 ft (7.8 m)

Friday, February 17, 2017

balcony home design

again,take those eyesores from ugh to ugh-mazing with these 21 ingeniously easy ways to hidethe ugly stuff in your home by peggy wang 1. camouflage an oddly placed light switch platewith a photo gallery. no one will even stop to ponder why there’san effing light switch in the middle of the wall. using an array of frames in wood tones andwhite create a little gallery wall to draw attention away from the awkwardly placed (akabothersome) light switch plate. as for the art just picked up at a local thriftshop.

2. hang a black drop cloth behind your desk tohide a tangled mass of wires. use bucky ball magnets to affix the cloth,making this a supremely easy diy. 3. turn a low drawer into a pet-feeding hutch. 4. spray-paint your folding chairs. metal folding chairs, for whatever reason,usually come in that weird ugly brown color. make them fun and bright with a little spraypaint.

5. instead of your standard garment rack, optfor a ceiling rope-hung rack instead. store-bought garment racks tend to look cheapand messy, so just make one. using an old curtain rod just cut down tothe size needed, create a rope wrapped hanging clothes bar that is suspended from the ceilingwith very well secured hooks. use hot glue to help secure the rope to thecurtain rod. once the rod was completely wrapped in rope,anchored two hooks into the ceiling at about the same width as the rod. finally, use rope to suspend the new clothesbar from the ceiling.

simply cut 2 pieces of rope at the same length,doubled them over, created a knot at the ends, and then slipped the clothes bar into them. 6. turn those nettlesome basement poles intostately columns with molding. just cover the poles with rustic pine boardsand trimmed them out with moldings. and paint them an accent color. it’ll look totally striking in a mostlywhite room. 7. you can actually paint any ugly tile floorsyou’re not crazy about.

does anyone actually like that mottled linoleumlook? after cleaning it very well and use some krudkutter to taped it off. put little pieces on the squares not to paintin. use primer before using chalk paint for checkerboardblack/gray and white color. seal the whole thing with a couple coats ofpoly-acrylic. 8. buy or sew your own crate cover for the pup. 9. stash peek-a-boo plants in your cinder blocks.

your backyard will look like it’s just burstingwith greenery. 10. use electrical tape to make over your washingmachines. if you get sick of your stripes and polkadots, they’re easily removable. 11. install a rolling recycling bin in your kitchencounter or island. 12. update your garage door with a fresh coatof paint. bonus points if it matches the shutters.

13. easily update your boring built-in bathtubwith airstone. things you need are two boxes of gray airstone,2 tubes of pl premium construction adhesive, caulk-gun, a putty knife, and a hacksaw. just apply the adhesive, and then stick itto the tub, end-to-end however you like, make your cuts as you go. apply molding trim after the last row. 14.

transition your backsplash into the wall seamlesslywith a shelf bracket. 15. keep your charging station in a kitchen ornightstand drawer, just by drilling some holes. many nightstands have open drawers in theback too, so you can keep your gadgets out of sight and out of mind. 16. if you have popcorn ceilings, you can actuallyscrape the “popcorn” off. it is a labor-intensive project, and makesure you get tested for asbestos before you begin.

many homes built before 1978 have ceilingsthat contain asbestos. instructions:prepping the room, cover everything from the top to the floor. using a squirt bottle water spray the popcornuntil it is wet and waits a couple of minutes for it to soak in and then wet it again. use a razor and a flathead screwdriver toscrape popcorn off, dry overnight before sanding. use the white tube ceiling texture. clean up all the debris. prime and paint your ceilings after you’redone.

you can also cover them with plaster. instruction:cover furniture and floor with plastic cloths put your joint compound in a plastering trayor small bucket. start in a corner of the room. starting at an edge of the ceiling least noticeable,press enough compound in to cover the popcorn. smooth it with a plaster knife,let the ceiling dry about a week before trying to paint it. 17. turn your balcony into a yard with astroturf.

your mini “backyard” waits. 18. use hooks underneath your desk to keep wiresout of the way. 19. upholster your unsightly box springs withfabric and a staple gun. add furniture legs to get your bed off thefloor. 20. hide florescent lights in your home or officewith these lattice covers. you could re-purpose covers out of an old headboardor cabinet door.

21. give your kitchen appliances a stainless steelmakeover with stainless steel contact paper. yep, it exists. here is how julie blanner revamped her dishwasher:instruction: 1st. cut a piece of contact paper 3″ longer thanrequired. then, open your dishwasher door and start at theedge. line the paper up with the top, peeling onlyan inch or so of the backing off at a time.

partner 1: start at the top, slowly workingyour way to the bottom using the credit card. partner 2: hold onto the contact paper witha little tension to keep the paper from adhering then once you reach the other side, trim the excessoff with a razor blade. and remove any bubbles working them out with acredit card. last,for those ugly things you have no plan to pass on to your children and grandchildren. try this brabantia sort and go waste bin. no endorsement. no commission transfered between product ownerand me,

i assure you that. done see you again next week with tons storage solutions that will expand your horizons to new level. meanwhile, like this video with your friends,or share it with anyone you know. last, subcribe to keep our channel in yourwatch list and thanks for watching

Thursday, February 16, 2017

balcony designs for homes

- hi, welcome back to engineeryour space i'm isabelle. today i'm giving you a quick tour of my la balcony and all the diyprojects that i did to make it a beautiful outdoor oasis. i can't wait to show youhow it all came together so let's get started. (funky music) even though my balcony isonly 35 square feet i was determined to make the mostout of it and not only have

it be a place where i could lounge, but also a place where i couldeat and have a small garden. the makeover all startedwith covering up the walls. i made these wall caps tofit the top of the walls making that space usable forplants without having to worry about anything falling to the ground. to spruce up the dingywalls i used a reed fence to make panels that iscrewed to the wood caps. i also wanted to create someprivacy and have some shade

so i built lattice panels using inexpensive 1x2 furring strips. i had them cut at thehardware store painted them and then attached themtogether with decking screws. the front panel isn't veryheavy at just over 30 pounds but it is easier to handle with a helper. now the tricky part was figuringout a way to install them without making any structuralchanges to the balcony or making any holes.

my solution was to use sisalrope to attach the front panel to the existing columnsand then use brackets, zip ties, and even gettingcreative with cabinet levelers to secure the side panels. the next part of the makeoverwere the finishing touches and i really wanted to make my small balcony feel like a cozy outdoor room. for the lounging area ibuilt a bench with 2x3s and 1x6 pine boards incorporatingaccess to the storage

space under the bench. adding some cushions madeit a perfect spot to lounge and it also serves triple duty as seating for the dining area. here i used the small outdoortable from ikea and gave it a makeover with a differentfinish on the base and a new top. for the garden i didn't havemuch space so i used the wall to hang an herb garden that imade with metal planters that

attached to the trellis. i added some more plans andsome accessories to make it feel more cozy and for lighting iinstalled smart outdoor led lights that i can turnon and off with my smartphone and change to any color that i want. it's just perfect forentertaining in the evening. well, that's it for today'sepisode, i hope you've enjoyed my balcony transformationand you can see more details on all my balconyprojects in these videos here

and don't forget to use hashtageysinspired to share your project and you can also visitengineeryourspace.com to see other projects thatpeople have done and more diy ideas and tips. see you next time!

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

balcony design for home

homeowners and contractors – check it out! beautiful homes are only as gorgeous as theirattractive exteriors, and nothing says beautiful exteriors better than gorgeously crafted balcony,porch, deck and stairway railings that create the flare your home needs to deliver a stunningoutdoor conversation piece! at mountain laurel handrail, we’ve carefullycrafted handrails that homeowners and contractors, just like you, can implement into the outwarddesign of your home – creating a look of uniqueness and exquisite taste! recently, our team completed this projectin highlands north carolina, where the traditional art of using mountain laurel branches andtwigs for rustic deck railings began.

mountain laurel handrails transform both interiorand exterior traditional guardrails into organic works of art. based on mastery once common in the smokeymountains of western north carolina, our artisans craft exquisite wood rails from the branchesof the magnificent mountain laurel tree with each branch unique in its shape and beauty. and now, these exquisite creations are availablenationwide, in easy to install sections. as you can see, our railings accentuate thealmost breath-taking views that this home boasts and complements the outdoor fireplace. these homeowners can enjoy a quiet morningcoffee, while rocking in the rocking chairs

and taking on the summer breeze as it flowsthrough the mountain laurel handrails! complete your deck with a unique wood railingfrom mountain laurel handrails and accentuate the natural beauty of the landscape. a specially stylized deck railing can addanother element of the outdoors, whether you’re looking to bring a more woodland feel to yoururban setting, or plan to highlight an existing landscape. whether you’re designing a custom deck,or you’ve recently moved into a home with a deck, you’ll want it to fit the styleof your home, and make sure it looks as good as possible.

mountain laurel handrails provide a beautiful,unique, natural feeling to the outdoor deck setting. each handrail is custom made to the deck’sspecification and can bring the beauty of nature and beyond to your deck. handrails not only update the appearance ofyour deck, but they also provided added protection for decks that aren’t at ground level. you’llgain peace of mind by using deck handrails to ensure the safety of children and pets,and you can do so in a way that is fashionable. thanks for checking out this video and makesure to visit the website http://awoodrailing.com

Tuesday, February 14, 2017

awesome home design

welcome guys we are here in amsterdamwith hans and he is presenting this zoku space to us. zoku is a hybrid between a placeto live and to work, and for that we developed the zoku loft. the zoku loft has everythingto live comfortably but also to work efficientlyso you find a high pressure shower, you got a kitchen with all the applications you needand a king size bed, and at the same time alsofree wireless wi-fi internet, all the office suppliesyou need to be very productive. in a normal house where you e.g have a kitchenand a bathroom, living room and a bedroom you waste a lot of space on circulationso we thought can we give circulation space

a double function in the space,and the second thing is what you see here this is a piece of furniture where we stackall the different components you find in a normalhome, and that makes it possible, that we can createin the same size, as a normal hotel room, we can create this tiny but still spaciousapartment. what we did is we elevated the bed,and we closed it up, people have the opportunity toopen it or keep it closed, especially when youhave visitors. we used a retractable staircase. it openslike this

that is amazing. and here you open up,and there’s your sleeping area. i love it can i check it out? yes sure.i love that there is no ladder. it is actually great.so we created in the same space 7 m2 extra and there is a lot of space up here,there is a lot of space. this concept has been developed for peoplewho need to live and work between 5 days and three months in the city. so it definitelymeans more storage space, and especially in a smallerarea you want to get rid of all your clutterso we have a lot of storage space here. here you can put your bike.here we got some storage space for your kitchen

supplies, everything has been taken care of.even here for example this cupboard you can closeand here you can find the safe so there plenty of space where you can storeyour things you always want sort of a room where you canstore all your office things, so this is not a place whereyou can actually work, because there is a big tablepretty suitable for that, but here you can store youroffice supplies, your laptop when you have visitorsand what have you, and maybe check a quick emailso this is the kitchen, here you find a two

plateinduction stove, with the exhaust of cours. here you have the fridge with a small freezercompartment a dishwasher, and some space to store yourwaste and your clutter. this is a combi oven, andhere is some small cupboard as well, so are you can preparea really nice meal and have a great cup of coffeeor fresh made tea. the biggest difference if you would to compareit to a hotel room or a studio room apartment, isthat in a hotel room the bed is always the most dominantpiece of furniture. and that really prevents

you frominviting people into your space. it makes it very crammedand also to have a meeting is a little bit strange,if people need to sit on the bed, so within “zoku”the kitchen table is a place where i can have a cappuccinoin the morning, i can have a meeting with four in theafternoon, and a dinner with three in the evening.in the bathroom we also separated the toilet areafrom the shower area. if you have visitors youdon’t want them to end them up in your shower.

quite a spacious shower.we give people the opportunity to hide their toiletriesfor example this cupboard which is now a big a big mirror,you can open up and store your items over here.to personalize your space, especially when you stay herelonger periods, people can actually change the artin this room, so we have an art collection in the hotel.in the corridors, and if you would like to changea particular piece of art, you just go to the corridor and change it,and it is really made to make it your place

instead of a place.this is another type, even though the component areexactly the same. so you see the kitchen is exactly the sameas in the other loft, and also the sleeping areafor example, is the same even though we turned the bed90 degrees, so the entire loft has been build upfrom the same components, but like a kind of tetrixwe did other things with it and twisted them a little bit.we tested the prototype with around 300 people andthe majority of comments were, that

this feels like a home instead of a hotelroom. if you are interested in the floor plans forthe zoku loft, we put the plans and more details on the websiteto access it all go to cards in the upper right corner.if you want to watch more tiny home tours, click thevideo on the left to see how this family of 6lives comfortably in only 1,000 square feet. if you like our videos, hit subscribe to getnew updates.

Monday, February 13, 2017

award winning architectural home designs

translator: joseph genireviewer: morton bast when we use the word "architect" or "designer," what we usually mean is a professional, someone who gets paid, and we tend to assume that it's those professionals who are going to be the ones to help us solve the really big, systemic design challenges that we face like climate change, urbanization and social inequality. that's our kind of working presumption.

and i think it's wrong, actually. in 2008, i was just about to graduate from architecture school after several years, and go out and get a job, and this happened. the economy ran out of jobs. and a couple of things struck me about this. one, don't listen to career advisers. and two, actually this is a fascinating paradox for architecture, which is that, as a society, we've never needed design thinking more,

and yet architecture was literally becoming unemployed. it strikes me that we talk very deeply about design, but actually there's an economics behind architecture that we don't talk about, and i think we need to. and a good place to start is your own paycheck. so, as a bottom-of-the-rung architecture graduate, i might expect to earn about 24,000 pounds. that's about 36,000, 37,000 dollars. now in terms of the whole world's population,

that already puts me in the top 1.95 richest people, which raises the question of, who is it i'm working for? the uncomfortable fact is that actually almost everything that we call architecture today is actually the business of designing for about the richest one percent of the world's population, and it always has been. the reason why we forgot that is because the times in history when architecture

did the most to transform society were those times when, actually, the one percent would build on behalf of the 99 percent, for various different reasons, whether that was through philanthropy in the 19th century, communism in the early 20th, the welfare state, and most recently, of course, through this inflated real estate bubble. and all of those booms, in their own various ways, have now kicked the bucket,

and we're back in this situation where the smartest designers and architects in the world are only really able to work for one percent of the population. now it's not just that that's bad for democracy, though i think it probably is, it's actually not a very clever business strategy, actually. i think the challenge facing the next generation of architects is, how are we going to turn our client from the one percent to the 100 percent?

and i want to offer three slightly counterintuitive ideas for how it might be done. the first is, i think we need to question this idea that architecture is about making buildings. actually, a building is about the most expensive solution you can think of to almost any given problem. and fundamentally, design should be much, much more interested in solving problems and creating new conditions. so here's a story.

the office was working with a school, and they had an old victorian school building. and they said to the architects, "look, our corridors are an absolute nightmare. they're far too small. they get congested between classes. there's bullying. we can't control them. so what we want you to do is re-plan our entire building, and we know it's going to cost several million pounds, but we're reconciled to the fact."

and the team thought about this, and they went away, and they said, "actually, don't do that. instead, get rid of the school bell. and instead of having one school bell that goes off once, have several smaller school bells that go off in different places and different times, distribute the traffic through the corridors." it solves the same problem, but instead of spending several million pounds,

you spend several hundred pounds. now, it looks like you're doing yourself out of a job, but you're not. you're actually making yourself more useful. architects are actually really, really good at this kind of resourceful, strategic thinking. and the problem is that, like a lot of design professions, we got fixated on the idea of providing a particular kind of consumer product, and i don't think that needs to be the case anymore.

the second idea worth questioning is this 20th-century thing that mass architecture is about big -- big buildings and big finance. actually, we've got ourselves locked into this industrial era mindset which says that the only people who can make cities are large organizations or corporations who build on our behalf, procuring whole neighborhoods in single, monolithic projects, and of course,

form follows finance. so what you end up with are single, monolithic neighborhoods based on this kind of one-size-fits-all model. and a lot of people can't even afford them. but what if, actually, it's possible now for cities to be made not just by the few with a lot but also by the many with a bit? and when they do, they bring with them a completely different set of values about the place that they want to live.

and it raises really interesting questions about, how will we plan cities? how will finance development? how will we sell design services? what would it mean for democratic societies to offer their citizens a right to build? and in a way it should be kind of obvious, right, that in the 21st century, maybe cities can be developed by citizens. and thirdly, we need to remember that, from a strictly economic point of view,

design shares a category with sex and care of the elderly -- mostly it's done by amateurs. and that's a good thing. most of the work takes place outside of the monetary economy in what's called the social economy or the core economy, which is people doing it for themselves. and the problem is that, up until now, it was the monetary economy which had all the infrastructure and all the tools.

so the challenge we face is, how are we going to build the tools, the infrastructure and the institutions for architecture's social economy? and that began with open-source software. and over the last few years, it's been moving into the physical world with open-source hardware, which are freely shared blueprints that anyone can download and make for themselves. and that's where 3d printing gets really, really interesting.

right? when suddenly you had a 3d printer that was open-source, the parts for which could be made on another 3d printer. or the same idea here, which is for a cnc machine, which is like a large printer that can cut sheets of plywood. what these technologies are doing is radically lowering the thresholds of time and cost and skill. they're challenging the idea that if you want something to be affordable it's got to be one-size-fits-all.

and they're distributing massively really complex manufacturing capabilities. we're moving into this future where the factory is everywhere, and increasingly that means that the design team is everyone. that really is an industrial revolution. and when we think that the major ideological conflicts that we inherited were all based around this question of who should control the means of production,

and these technologies are coming back with a solution: actually, maybe no one. all of us. and we were fascinated by what that might mean for architecture. so about a year and a half ago, we started working on a project called wikihouse, and wikihouse is an open-source construction system. and the idea is to make it possible for anyone to go online, access a freely shared library

of 3d models which they can download and adapt in, at the moment, sketchup, because it's free, and it's easy to use, and almost at the click of a switch they can generate a set of cutting files which allow them, in effect, to print out the parts from a house using a cnc machine and a standard sheet material like plywood. and the parts are all numbered, and basically what you end up with is a really big ikea kit.

(laughter) and it goes together without any bolts. it uses wedge and peg connections. and even the mallets to make it can be provided on the cutting sheets as well. and a team of about two or three people, working together, can build this. they don't need any traditional construction skills. they don't need a huge array of power tools or anything like that,

and they can build a small house of about this size in about a day. (applause) and what you end up with is just the basic chassis of a house onto which you can then apply systems like windows and cladding and insulation and services based on what's cheap and what's available. of course, the house is never finished. we're shifting our heads here, so the house is not a finished product.

with the cnc machine, you can make new parts for it over its life or even use it to make the house next door. so we can begin to see the seed of a completely open-source, citizen-led urban development model, potentially. and we and others have built a few prototypes around the world now, and some really interesting lessons here. one of them is that it's always incredibly sociable. people get confused between construction work and having fun. but the principles of openness go right down

into the really mundane, physical details. like, never designing a piece that can't be lifted up. or, when you're designing a piece, make sure you either can't put it in the wrong way round, or, if you do, it doesn't matter, because it's symmetrical. probably the principal which runs deepest with us is the principal set out by linus torvalds, the open-source pioneer, which was that idea of, "be lazy like a fox."

don't reinvent the wheel every time. take what already works, and adapt it for your own needs. contrary to almost everything that you might get taught at an architecture school, copying is good. which is appropriate, because actually, this approach is not innovative. it's actually how we built buildings for hundreds of years before the industrial revolution in these sorts of community barn-raisings.

the only difference between traditional vernacular architecture and open-source architecture might be a web connection, but it's a really, really big difference. we shared the whole of wikihouse under a creative commons license, and now what's just beginning to happen is that groups around the world are beginning to take it and use it and hack it and tinker with it, and it's amazing.

there's a cool group over in christchurch in new zealand looking at post-earthquake development housing, and thanks to the ted city prize, we're working with an awesome group in one of rio's favelas to set up a kind of community factory and micro-university. these are very, very small beginnings, and actually there's more people in the last week who have got in touch and they're not even on this map.

i hope next time you see it, you won't even be able to see the map. we're aware that wikihouse is a very, very small answer, but it's a small answer to a really, really big question, which is that globally, right now, the fastest-growing cities are not skyscraper cities. they're self-made cities in one form or another. if we're talking about the 21st-century city, these are the guys who are going to be making it. you know, like it or not, welcome to the world's biggest design team.

so if we're serious about problems like climate change, urbanization and health, actually, our existing development models aren't going to do it. as i think robert neuwirth said, there isn't a bank or a corporation or a government or an ngo who's going to be able to do it if we treat citizens only as consumers. how extraordinary would it be, though, if collectively we were to develop solutions not just to the problem

of structure that we've been working on, but to infrastructure problems like solar-powered air conditioning, off-grid energy, off-grid sanitation -- low-cost, open-source, high-performance solutions that anyone can very, very easily make, and to put them all into a commons where they're owned by everyone and they're accessible by everyone? a kind of wikipedia for stuff? and once something's in the commons,

it will always be there. how much would that change the rules? and i think the technology's on our side. if design's great project in the 20th century was the democratization of consumption -- that was henry ford, levittown, coca-cola, ikea — i think design's great project in the 21st century is the democratization of production. and when it comes to architecture in cities,

that really matters. thank you very much.

Friday, February 10, 2017

av jennings homes designs

doctor andy thomson. thank you! how many of you here, at some point inyour life, were religious believers? of course! most of us are. why did my mind, why did your mind,why did our minds generate religious ideas, religiousbeliefs, and accept them? why? and what i hope to show you this morningis the answer to those questions. we're getting tantalizingly close to a comprehensivecognitive neuroscience of religious belief. robust theories, empirical evidence.

and my plan this morning is to lay out foryou uh... some of the basics for this, and then to give you someof the empirical evidence. and to end on a historical note, that i think both illuminates the past and the present and may tell ussomething about the future. the way to think about my talk is that i hope to give you in a senselike a swiss army knife; a swiss army knife of tools that youcan take back to your community

in the debates that you have with believers. before i do that however,i need to thank a number of people. dave for the kind introduction, ed bucknerand american atheists for the invitation to behere today. to arlene-marie for some help with logistics. for tim dicks with all this help withthe av that you'll see today. also i thank this man behindthe camera here: josh timonen. built absolutely and maintains one of thebest educational websites in the world, richarddawkins.net

behind him his partner marine norton; josh and marine have contributed tothe material you will hear today. and i particularly want to thank richard dawkins for the opportunity to work with his foundation but more specifically his work. i think and i think this audienceappreciates that when richard christopher hitchens, sam harris,dan dennett, ayaan hirsi ali; when they publish these books, they are notonly creating a sea change in the culture, but they're putting their lives on the line.

people here know that thereare others out there who don't share these ideas,who are threatened by them. and they really put their liveson the line for all of us. i think we owe them anenormous debt of gratitude! where do we start? we start with darwin. darwin's remarkable idea not only gives us the onlyworkable explanation we have for the design and varietyof all life on earth;

his idea gives us the onlyworkable explanation we have for the design and architectureof the human mind, and in that architecture the piecesthat generate religious belief. basically you take darwin's idea combine it with watson and crick with genetics and you have this:this is the modern darwinian synthesis. every organism is an integrated collectionof problem solving devices designed over evolutionarytime by natural selection to promote in some specific waythe genes that produce that adaption.

let's look at us. look at me, ok? the heart solves the problemof pumping blood; hemoglobin solves the problemof transporting oxygen; the long solves the problemof extracting oxygen from the air. at every single level a biological inquiry, from membranes to mind: darwinian natural selection. now this statement also- i want to look at carefully - is also a statement about the human mind.

the mind is what the brain does, and the brain evolved under thesame rules of natural selection. the brain is a collection, an integratedcollection of problem solving devices, designed over evolutionary timeby natural selection, to promote in some specific waythe genes that build that adaption. steven pinker has the analogy that thehuman mind is like the apollo spacecraft: this compact collectionof engineering devices, solving a constant stream of problems, only a few of them consciousto the astronauts.

you're sitting there now. i am on your retina, upside downin two dimensions. specific adaptions are turning thatinto a three-dimensional image. you don't know it and i'll show you. you're watching my face, my eyes. you have a very complex socialcognitive uh... adaptations, some of which -i'll show you-contribute to religious belief. now the other fundamental is this: that we are, as we now know,risen apes, not fallen angels.

we arose in africa. put aside are ethnic religiousracial differences: underneath our skinswe are all africans. we are all -every one of the sixbillion people on this planet- we are all sons and daughters of asmall band of hunter-gatherers, that arose in africa about 70,000 years ago,and conquered the world. we are the last surviving hominid. you may not know it:this is your family history. over here, the common ancestor... down here,the common ancestor with chimps and bonobos.

and this is the hominid line. australopithicenes, lucy. panthropus and here we are, homo.our genus homo. homo habilis, homo erectus,homo heidelbergensis. homo neanderthalensis and then,we are the last surviving hominid. this is lucy, up here. homo erectus about two million years ago. and us. and notice in particularlythe area of the frontal lobes.

this shows is a little bit clearer. on the left is a skull of a homo erectus,on the right homo sapiens. notice in particular the enlargementof the frontal lobe area. and for evolution pretty quick period of timewe have all of these frontal lobes. why? if you remember, 1.5 - 2.0 million years ago,homo erectus left africa, without language, went to indonesia, the caucasus... really in some senseconquered half the world. they had conquered the physical environmentby a million years ago.

so what was left? what was the most challenging complexpart of our environment, that drove the evolution of us? well, the most challenging complex partof the environment was probably eachother! (laughter) and this is the... this is the originof our complex social cognitions. why is this important? because religious ideas

religious beliefs are just the extraordinary useof everyday cognitions; everyday adaptations; social cognitions; agency detection; precautionary reasoning. religious ideas, religious beliefs area by-product of cognitive mechanisms designed originally for other purposes. now, what's a by-product?

i noticed a few people taking notes. reading and writing isa cultural by-product. we don't have reading and writingmodules in our brain. it's a by-product of fine motor skills,vision, language. music is a by-product. a by-product of language: hard vowelsand consonants put to rhythm. originally the rhythmof a beating heart. and this is the essenceof what religions are. religions are by-productsof cognitive mechanisms,

everyday cognitive mechanisms,that created- and arise, really, as an artifact of our abilityto imagine social worlds. they're *always*... always... every religious idea is a human conceptwith some slight alteration. now, how many of you herelove big mac meals? now come on, i'm a psychiatrist,you can tell me! you know, it's confidential information,it's protected by hipaa rules. how many of you love big mac? come on! of course! of course.

how many of you... how many of youhave cravings for broccoli? cravings for broccoli? you can see there is variation in a species. but it is very few. why? the reason for this is that if you understandthe psychology of the big mac meal you understand the psychology of religion. we have... i'm serious!let me show you this! ok? we evolved adaptations for thingsthat were crucial and rare: sugars of ripe fruit;

fat of lean game meat; of salt. those were crucial adaptations in our past. and the modern world createsa novel form of it, that comes from those adaptations,but hijacks them with super-normal stimuli. not ripe fruit, but a coca-cola. not lean game meat, but a fat hamburger. french fries soaked in meat juice. and it creates these super-normal stimuli,but they're based on ancient adaptations.

let me just take you now ona little bit of a tour of some of these cognitive mechanisms. the first is decoupled cognition. this is a fancy word for...we can decouple cognition in time. since i have been talking, i will guaranteethat everybody in this room has thought of, while you're listeningto me and paying close attention, you have thought of a conversation youhave had with somebody in the past or you were thinking about a conversation you're going to have withsomebody later on today.

as i'm talking right now, everyone of us in this room canimagine and conduct in our heads a conversation with president obama. as you can see, it's extraordinary. and it's crucial for memory, for planning. absolutely one of the essences of our humanity. it allows us these complex interactionswith unseen others. complex social interactionswith unseen others. you can see that it's justone little step to,

you know, communicating with a dead ancestor. i don't know about you,but i'm getting to the age where a lot of those near anddear to me have died and i catch myself still talking to them. it's one step further tocommunicating to a god or gods. hyperactive agency detection. all of us will mistakea shadow for a burglar; we will never mistakea burglar for a shadow. we have these hyperactive agencydetection mechanisms.

if we were to hear a loud bang right nowwe would all startle, and we would assume it was not accident:it was agency and probably human agency. now, you may reasonably ask: well ok, how does decoupled cognition- interacting with another - how does hyperactive agency, how does that lead tosupernatural figures though? i mean to supernatural burglars? how do you get the next level outfrom human to supernatural? this!

your minds fill-in... there is,there are no lines there, but your minds see that squareand fill in the lines. it's called intuitive reasoning. and underlines the essenceof religious ideas which are minimally counter-intuitiveworlds: mcis. now, what is this? it's an optimal compromise betweenthe interesting and the expected. and it gives us attention arrestingand memorable things. let me illustrate.

if i tell you that that big treeout in front of the conference center will do your taxes, wash your laundry,uh... you know, reprogram your computer... you're simply not going to believe me. but if i tell you that tree on the night of a full moon will hear your wishes and grant them you might be vulnerable to believe in it. not this audience, but many people. but you might be vulnerable to it,because there's just one slight twist;

everything you know about treesis intuitively in there and you fill in the blanks. now, think of the judeo-christian god. he's everywhere, there's a little twistof physics, but it's just a guy! and you fill in the blanks. you don't even think about it,but you fill in the blanks. there's no violation ofbasic human assumptions. 'he's a guy, he can understand mysouthern accent of english...' all the assumptions about humannessare just filled in.

there's just one little twist. and all religious ideas...have these supernatural templates. they have a counter-intuitive physical property.like you know, 'god is everywhere'. counter-intuitive uh... may havea counter-intuitive piece of biology: - the virgin birth - but mary is otherwise just a girl. a counter-intuitive psychology. you know, god knows what i'm thinking. but if he knows what i'm thinking,why do i still have to pray to him?

why do i still have to talk to him? because again those basic assumptionsabout humanness are all still intact. that's why we believe it. that's why will start to accept it andthat's why it sticks in our heads. there is always, always, the attributionof mental states; human mental states. look at any religious idea. you know, go back to your college courses. think about any religious system,any religious ideas you know of, and they fit this model.

we see this most clearly, some of thesevulnerabilities, in children. i mean, we're all children grown up. children from very early onare "common sense dualists". what does this mean? it means you can take a five-month-oldand you can have a box, you can arrange for a box to movejumpstart like a person, and a five-month-old will startle. a five-month old doesn't startle when ahuman being moves in exactly the same way. so very early on you start tosee that we have systems

that are designed for dealing withagents with intentions and goals, and physical objects. now, children know more than they learn. we come into the world with thesesystems already in place. it is natural from very early onto think of disembodied minds. you can flip it around and you canunderstand why this is crucial. if i require a body to thinkabout that person's mind, that's a real liability. it's burdensome.

i need to be able tothink about somebody, think about what'sgoing on in them, and what their intentionsor goals might be, without them present. jesse bering in ireland didsome fascinating experiments. a puppet show in which analligator eats a mouse. and then their children are asked: "well, does the mouse stillneed to eat or drink?" and the children say "no".

"is the mouse still moving around?""no." "does the mouse think certain thinks?does the mouse want certain things?" the children say "yes"! you start to see that division. half of four-year-olds, if you interview them,have imaginary friends. so that we see that thebelief in some life separate from what is actuallyexperienced in the body is the default settingof the human mind. another thing about children is thatthey are causal determinists.

well, any mind that is oriented towardsseeing intentions and desires and goals is going to overread purpose. if you ask a child: "what are birds for?"you know: -"to sing." "what are rivers for?-"for boats to float on." "what are rocks for?"-"for animals to scratch themselves." ok? we overread causality.way overread causality and purpose. if you go to the dawkins website there's a fascinating interview betweenrichard dawkins and randy nesse. and at the beginning of the interview,it's fascinating: they both catch themselves

talking about natural selectionas an intentional agent. and they realize they're using intentionallanguage and they stop themselves. and so it's very easy forus to imagine, again, intentional agents that areseparate from ourselves. children will spontaneouslyinvent the concept of god. what you start to see are thesemechanisms that were born with make us all very vulnerableto religious ideas. religious ideas are much easier. it's disbelief, it's truly understanding,say, something like natural selection,

that is cognitively a little bit harder. decoupled cognition, hyperactive agency,minimally counter-intuitive worlds, promiscuous teleology... ...starting to build this listof cognitive mechanisms. now we'll turn to the attachment mechanism. the attachment mechanismin humans was laid out by psychiatrist john bowlby in england,and mary ainsworth, a psychologist here. and the attachment system is the fundamentalcare-taking system in mammals. and think about religions:you're in distress, what do you do?

you turn to a caretaker;you turn to an attachment figure. alan walker, the great paleoanthropologist, has this absolutely haunting storyin his book about the turkana boy. and they found this 1.7 million-year-old fossilof an adult woman, an adult homo erectus woman. 1.7 million years old. and she had died of severevitamin a poisoning, which would have meant that she washemorrhaging into her joints, pain, couldn't move;it's a terrible way to die. but on closer inspection they noticedthat there was new bone growth.

and it immediately caught them. they suddenly realized that this woman,1.7 million years ago, had lived for months, and that it meantthat somebody was taking care of her. bringing her food and water,protecting her from predators sitting with her through the long, dark,dangerous nights in the savannas. so you see this attachment system in our species,or in our ancestors, 1.7 million years ago. the attachment system isboth crucial to belief, but what i want to show you is, the attachment system is one of the thingsthat makes it very hard to give up belief.

and we see this illustrated in darwin's life. remember darwin went on the voyageof the beagle, 1831 to 1836. he comes home, and his ideasare starting to gel. john gould tells him his finches are speciesthat have never been seen before. and he's realized that species are not immutable,he starts to think about evolution. opens his notebook- this was his original tree of life - and sees that man may arise from animalsand there is no need for any deity. remember he went on board ofthe beagle as a creationist. this is what he writesin his notebook in 1837.

he's engaged to emma wedgwood,his first cousin. he realizes that species change: they evolve.but he doesn't have a mechanism. and in september 1838, he readsmalthus' essay and he gets his idea. he sees the mechanism: the strugglefor existence, at september 1838. somewhere in that fall, he told his fiancã©. in november, he gets the firstof these kind of letters. she was distressed, and she said this kind of thinking might cause'a painful void between us'. they were married in january 1839.

in february 1839, she writes him another letter. after his death this letter was discovered,and on the bottom in his own hand is written: 'you don't know how many timesi have cried over this.' by the 1840s, darwin is walking emma and the childrento the church on sunday mornings, stopping at the gate, they go into church,he goes off on a walk. and it is reasonable to thinkthat it is the concern about his wife's reaction,the potential rupture of that bond that's one of the things that led darwinto sit on his idea for twenty years.

and we see this fear of loss of attachmenteven in one of the modern apologists. karl giberson. a nazarene college physicist, who is constantlytalking about reconciling evolution and religion. and he states it quite explicitly. if he were to give up his faith, he wouldlose his parents, his wife, his children. fear of loss of attachment,the rupture of that bond. so we see that the attachment systemis both crucial to religion, it's one of the barriers to giving it up.

now i want to turn to theory of mind. all of you here know that i havea mind like your mind, with intentions, wishes and desires. with intentions wishes and desiresthat may be different from yours. these capacities come online... i think whenwe we're about 3 or 4 years of age. i want you to look at the pictureon the left of bogart and then quickly look over onthe picture on the right. if you do that, the picture on the leftbogart's eyes are looking to his left. when you look at the other picture,bogart's eyes are looking to the right.

but how can that be? it's the exact same picture,it's just flipped into a negative. why do bogart's eyes switch? and what i'm trying to teaseout here is to show you that you have a separate dedicated system. when you look at faces, you have a separatededicated system that monitors eye gaze. take a look at this for a momentand and make a guess. use your gut, make a guess as towhat this individual is feeling. anybody want to guess?

uneasy? that's right, uneasy. what about this one? playful. it's playful. now, think about it for a moment. you're looking at grainyblack-and-white photos of eyes, and you are making sophisticated discriminationsabout complex emotional states. the women are a little bitbetter at it than the men,

but we can discern 212 complicatedemotional states just from eye gaze. if you're interested in this,this is uh... sacha baron cohen's smarter brother,simon baron-cohen at cambridge. this is much better than borat. but look at it. it's fascinating stuff. and again, this is part of theory of mind. you probably can't read the caption here,let me read for you. it says: "what do you think i think about what youthink i think you've been thinking about?"

and this is another part of theory of mindcalled intensionality, with an s. and it goes like this. the first order is "i think." second order "i think you think." third order "i think you think that i think." fourth order, and we can go to about five,sometimes six orders, and that's about it. and you can see, i hope, were this isabsolutely crucial: to social interaction. utterly crucial. and again, an extraordinary pieceof cognitive software.

just extraordinary. can everybody read the captions in there? ok, first up the wife says:"i think he's very boring!" the stranger says: "i believe thatshe thinks i'm very attractive!!" and the husband says: "i suspect that he believesthat she wants to run off with him!!!" you can see now. look at what religions do. religions again utilize this. "i believe."

"i believe that god wants." "i believe that god wants usto act with righteous intent." fourth order is social religion. "i want you to believe that god wantsus to act with righteous intent." fifth order: communal religion. "i want you to know that we both believe thatgod wants us to act with righteous intent." and see how religions utilizethis cognitive adoption, which is just an ordinary-not so ordinary, really- but cognitive adaption that is crucialto our social interaction.

now, let me turn to one of the,i think, most exciting things that's come along in a long time. just came out this past march. it is the paper by a group of peoplewith senior authors: kapogiannis. this research comes from thenational institute of health. national institute of stroke andcerebrovascular disease. which i just love. and what they did is that...this is a unique study. they took twenty man, twenty women,various religions,

and they put them infunctional mri machines, and they read about a hundreddifferent paired statements about religious experience,knowledge, various things. 'god controls the world.' 'god is absent from the world.' 'god has views on marriage.' 'god disapproves of homosexuality.' 'god has ideas about marriage.' there's this long list and they put theseindividuals in functional mris,

and asked them whether they agreedor disagreed with the statement and then measured their response. if you're not used to seeing mris: if you start over here on the left, that'slike my right hemisphere has been removed and you're looking at a split brain,you're looking into my brain right in the midline, and then as we go down to the right,the rest of my right front... my right hemisphere is filling in.

so, midline on the left, and at the endon the right is the outer cortex. and the patterns that arose were uniform. god's love, god's anger. doctrinal religious knowledge. and then experiential religious knowledge. and in all these individualsthe patterns came out the same. well, why? there are three dimensions ofreligious belief, that teased up. god's perceived level of involvement

god's perceived emotions and doctrinal knowledge andexperiential knowledge. all of this, all of this was localizedin networks that processed theory of mind... theory of mind capacities andabstract semantics and imagery. why this is important is that it's unique. we know we've had mri studies withbuddhist monks in some outlines, but these are just ordinary peopleof various religious persuasions. and what it shows is that the componentsof religious belief are served by well-known neural circuits,- circuits that we already know about -

which mediate these evolutionaryadaptive cognitive mechanisms. that religion is integrated into the brainusing networks for social cognition. they're not specific religiousnetworks in the brain or specific religious networksin various individuals; they come down on well-knowncircuits used in social cognition. and this is what i think powerful evidencesupporting the idea that religions arise from these ordinary evolved cognitivemechanisms used in social interaction. and you gotta just love this comes fromthe national institute of health. [laughter]

now. problem of dead bodies. what do we do with dead bodies? is it dead or is it asleep? and what happens when we areconfronted with a dead body, is that, in particular ifit's someone we love, we've got a problem becausethere's a conflict. there's a conflict between thosetheory of mind capacities that we have, because those theory of mindcapacities keep on going,

and the part of us, the natural kinds modulesthat tell us: "this body is quite dead." so the mind is alive, the body is dead;we have a conflict. this is why when you lose somebody that youlove, you just keep on talking to him. this is part... it's very hard becauseof our theory of mine modules. it's very hard for us toconceive our own deaths. this is why we plan our funerals, as partof us thinks we're still going to be there. i had a patient a couple of weeks agowhose best friend committed suicide.

for weeks after he's stilltext messaging his best friend. and you can see that this conflict, the theory of mind and natural kinds modules,the problem of dead bodies really dovetails with decoupled cognitionand these other things i've shown you and creates the release and the idea of soulsand the continued life afterwards. which again is not, as i hope i've shown you,is not that much of a stretch based on our evolved cognitive architecture. what do you... just do a gut check. what do you feel when you see this man?

i feel... 'kindly older brother'. and this is a concept that wasdiscovered by freud. the concept of transference: that we basecurrent relationships on past relationships. we set a grammar of relatednessvery early in our lives. how many of you have seenthe movie momentum? it shows what happens whenyou lose that capacity. you have to learn about socialrelationships each new time. you can see how religions hijackthese capacities for transference. and particularly parental transferences.

so you start, i hope, to see howwe hijack parental transferences and how it also queues intothe attachment system. some other cognitive mechanisms. childhood credulity.as richard has said. natural selection designs child brainsto soak up the culture around them. and a child can't tell the differencebetween good advice: "don't swim in the river with alligators" and bad advice: "sacrifice a pigfor the new harvest." all of us are much much more deferentialto authority than any of us would like to

believe. the famous stanley milgram experimentsthat showed that we will do things under the guide of an authority that weat another level know we shouldn't. reciprocal altruism. all of us keep in our heads who we oweand what we owe, and who owes us. and you can see religions utilize this. if you sacrifice, you'll receivesomething in return. reciprocity. this: romantic love.

we have circuits in our braindesigned for romantic love, for intense focus and love andcommitment to an individual. and this cognitive mechanismis also used in religions. think about mother teresa's recent letterswhere she talked about "marrying christ". if you've seen the moviethe painted veil, the diana rigg character, the nun,has this powerful soliloquy in which she talked about when as a younggirl she fell in love with jesus. moral feeling systems.

all of us have inferential moral systemsthat come online has early is age one. but it's very hard for us to beconscious of the origins of this. we just sort of know itinstinctively at a gut level. it's very hard to be conscious of it,and this is what religions hijack. and then they claim we wouldn't havemorality if it weren't for them. and they recruit these moral systems, obviously,to lend credence and plausibility to gods. particularly use these moral systemsto link commitment mechanisms, to provide a competent,morally competent witness. and it helps us become consciousof our moral systems

- which are still basically instinctive. i think this is a useful way to think aboutthe difference between morality and 'religious morality'. "morality is doing what is right,regardless of what we're told; religious dogma is doing what we're told,regardless of whether it was right." something that is related to thisis altruistic punishment. this again is a cognitivemechanism all of us have. we are willing to punish social cheatsat a cost to ourselves. all of us do it,all of us have done it.

again: crucial the social life. suicide terrorism is just one step removed. empathy. if i raise my right hand, there are neurons in my leftmotor strip lighting up. as you all are sitting there watchingme raise my right hand, the same neurons in your left motor striplight up; the exact same ones. but you inhibit the response. if i take my hand and i take this knifeand i start to poke it in,

i feel a little pain right now and some neurons are lighting upin my left sensory motor strip, my thalamus and i'm starting i'm starting to feel pain. ok? as you are watching me do this, the same neurons in your left sensorymotor strip are also lighting up. as i'm doing this. all you gotta dois see me doing this, and maybe a little whince on my face,and you feel the same thing.

you literally feel my pain. this capacity for empathy, again:crucial for social relationships. how do religions hijack this? this is a filipino devotee who last yearhad himself nailed to a cross. now, i don't know about you,but when i was a child i saw a lot of this,and it really distressed me. and i thought: "well maybe there'ssomething wrong with me..." but i can remember beingdistressed by this. and every time that this kindof thing is displayed,

no matter how hardened youget to it, at some level those parts of you thatfeel the kind of pain that would be induced by this torture,will light up. and religions hijack this capacity forliterally feeling other's pain to induce guilt and obligation. another thing that we use are hard-to-fakehonest signals of commitment. how do you know i'm really committed? why would you believe what i say? i need to give you a hard-to-fakehonest signal of commitment.

again: crucial the social relationships. you can see how religions utilize this.all religions. suicide terrorism is another hard-to-fakehonest signal of commitment. it's connected with religious rituals,that tap into another mechanism: our threat response system. they're compelling and rigidly scripted, usually have to do withcleansing and order, and they enable rituals, again. i hope you start to see how all of these mechanismssort of come together.

we experience them in our consciousnessas a seamless whole, but they're really very specific parts. and religious rituals enable us to both demonstrate and have scrutinizedour hard-to-fake honest signals. they communicate intentions; it's anotherway of communicating goals and intentions. inculcate doctrines, forge alliances. create hope, solace, entertain... they are divorced from theoriginal goal of protection.

they delimit sacred spaces. and they exploit another thingthat we're biased towards, which is the gestalt law of the whole. basically what this means is when you seea flying v formation of birds you don't see the individuals,you just see the formation, the v. ok? the gestalt law of the whole. religions exploit this, creating these attention arresting memorableand often intimidating spectacles. designed, again, to engage usand make us tremble.

other mechanisms that are involved: motivated reasoning:we doubt what we don't like. confirmation bias: we noticedata that fits our beliefs. mere familiarity, and kin psychology. and this is huge in religion. all of us have mechanisms toidentify and favor kin. and religions hijack this. just look at the catholic church, you know:

the priests are brothers, the nuns aresisters, the pope is the holy father. so, i hope i have shown you... and this is just a modest list. this is not the complete list of the thingsthat we have teasted out; the cognitive mechanisms,designed for other purposes, that come together to createreligious beliefs, religious ideas, and make us vulnerable to believingthem and passing them on. so i'd like to end now ona little historical note that i think is interesting and mayshow the light to the future.

in 1918, 80 years after darwin had figuredout his idea of natural selection, william jennings bryan began what dudley malonecalled his 'dual to the death' with evolution. and culminated in the john scopes trialin dayton, tennessee in the summer of 1925. only evolution survived, bryan did not. clarence darrow put on one ofthe most spectacular cross-exams of a hostile witness ever,and utterly devastated bryan. he took him apart on his witness stand. william jennings bryan diedfive days after the trial.

things remain quiet for about 40 years. and then in the 1960s, we begina sequence of court cases starting with uh... the ones in yelloware the supreme court cases... starting with the epperson case which bannedany bans on teaching evolution. and then, there was the pushbackfrom the religious, the attempts to get creation taught;"creation science". there have been seventeen cases, major cases,the most recent being the dover case. and in each case, scienceand evolution has won. at the scopes trial, dudley malone,

who was an irish catholic divorce lawyerand who was clarence darrow's co-counsel, gave what is considered the best speech ofthe trial; the academic freedom speech, in which he said:"teach science, teach evolution!" but he said there was no conflictbetween religion and science. and if you remember the dover case, kenneth miller, the brown biologist,was one of the chief plaintiff's experts and he said intelligent designwas "not science", but there was "no conflict"between religion and science. and that made it into judge jones's decision.

i think this audience knows, that *there is indeed* a conflictbetween science religion. and if i have done my job this morning,and if i've done my job well, i hope i have shown you thatwe are on the threshold of a comprehensive cognitiveneuroscience of religion. and it deepens the conflictbetween science and religion. not just the science of evolutionarybiology which darwin started, but the science of the mind,the evolutionary cognitive neuroscience which darwin also started.

and it deepens that conflict. and it is not long before anypsychology textbook for a psychology textbook tobe current and up to date you will have to include thiscognitive neuroscience of religion. and it's not going to be long beforea john scopes, or a jane scopes moves to teach cognitive neuroscienceof religion in a high school class. in a public school. and you and i know that therewill then be litigation. litigation will be broughtby the religious right.

and i think, i hope, given whati've shown you this morning, that your feeling about that litigationis the same as mine, which is: "bring it on!" thank you very much! [applause]

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